Peru is located in the central western part of South America and it is the third biggest country of the region, after Brazil and Argentina. It is also one of the 20 largest countries of our planet. Peru has an extension of 1.285.215 km2.
Its political division consists of 24 departments and the Constitutional Province of Callao.
Currency: New Sol (S/.)
The history of Peru is divided in the following time periods:
Several cultures were prominent during this time.
Chavin de Huantar, X Century BC. This culture excelled for its impressive ceremonial constructions and the practice of an advanced civilization. During the IV century BC, Chimu and Nasca were famous for its textile, metallurgy, and a technologically advanced irrigation system. The Tiahuanaco culture lived during the VI century AC. Throughout the XII century AC., the Inca culture was born. The first Incas lived by the Titicaca Lake, the highest lake in the world, and then migrated to Cusco. Warriors by nature, the Inca culture expanded its domain in a short period of time.
The capital of the Inca Empire was the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization lived in Peru from the 1100s to 1532. Even though it was an advanced civilization, they did not have a written language.
The Empire was ruled by the Inca, person who was said to possess divine powers. Their primary god was Wiracocha. The Incas were an extremely advanced civilization. They mastered astronomy, mathematics, architecture and ceramics. They were well known for their agriculture and ingenious hydraulic systems that were used to farm the land throughout a system of several terraces called andenes. The Incas had a defined social-political division. All land belonged to the Inca and they used the Ayllu as their economic unit.
In 1532, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas and, therefore, the Inca territory became a colony of Spain. Afterwards, Pizarro and his people completely destroyed the Inca civilization.
Independence and Republic:
Peru remained a Spanish colony until 1821, when the declaration of independence was signed. Today, Peru is a democratic republic.